A historical castle and a traditional Yakhchal (mudbrick ice storage) in the city of Ahmadabad-e Mostofi, Tehran province, have undergone some rehabilitation works, a local tourism official has announced.
A budget of four billion rials ($14,000) has been allocated to the projects, which are being carried out under the supervision of cultural heritage experts, CHTN quoted Hamid Karimi as saying on Friday.
The project, which is being implemented in collaboration with the private sector, is scheduled to come to an end by the next summer, the official added.
When there was no electricity, no refrigerators, and no appliances, people kept a huge amount of water next to the high walls of Yakhchal, which cast a shadow that kept the water cool.
The water turned into ice during the wintertime. Then people cut the ice into many portable parts put them in the ice house and covered the surface of the ice with special local grass.
This structure is built high to minimize the contact of warm air with the ice surface as the warm air floats upwards. The feature of the ice storage was essential to its functioning.
There were also wells behind the ice storage with a connective canal at the bottom of the ice storage to the wells with a slight slope.
When people piled up the ice, a little amount of water remained under the heap of ice. If the water was not removed it would make the rest of the ice melt. By channeling the water into the well, not only did they prevent the ice stored in the ice house from melting, but also they had cold and tasty water during summer months when the weather went up to 40 degrees Celsius.
From very early history to modern times, defensive walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest.
Fortifications in antiquity were designed primarily to defeat attempts at the escalade, and to the defense of territories in warfare, and were also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
Uruk in ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia) is one of the world’s oldest known walled cities. The Ancient Egyptians also built fortresses on the frontiers of the Nile Valley to protect against invaders from neighboring territories.
Many of the fortifications of the ancient world were built with mud brick, often leaving them no more than mounds of dirt for today’s archaeologists.
The first time Tehran is mentioned in historical accounts is in an 11th-century chronicle in which it is described as a small village north of Ray.
Ray, in which signs of settlement date from 6000 BC, is often considered to be Tehran’s predecessor. It became the capital city of the Seljuk Empire in the 11th century but later declined with factional strife between different neighborhoods and the Mongol invasion of 1220.
Tehran has many to offer its visitors including Golestan Palace, Grand Bazaar, Treasury of National Jewels, National Museum of Iran, Glass & Ceramic Museum, Masoudieh Palace, Sarkis Cathedral, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, and Carpet Museum of Iran, to name a few.